#### Correction Factor Tables for Four-Point Probe Resistivity Measurements on Thin, Circular Semiconductor Samples

**Question: What is the need for correction factors in four point probe measurements?**

**Answer:** The geometry of the sample determines the correction factors that must be used, additionally the position of the probes on the sample and the spacings between the probes. The need for correction factors is caused by the proximity of a boundary which limits the possible current paths in the sample. The most basic sample would be semi-infinite in extent i.e., it extends to infinity in all directions below the plane in which the four probes are located. All other cases would restrict the current paths available, eg., an infinite plane sample of finite thickness requires a correction factor based on the thickness.

**The table shown immediately below pertains to one of the most commonly needed correction factors, i.e., correction factors for measuring a “thin, circular slice”. After the table, you will find links to all of the pages from the 1964 National Bureau of Standards Technical Note 199, “Correction Factor Tables for Four-Point Probe Resistivity Measurements on Thin, Circular Semiconductor Samples”, with each page available as an individual PDF file. The document provides extensive tables of geometrical correction factors. **

**Correction factors for measuring a thin circular slice, measured in the center**

The following table pertains to sheet resistance measurements made in the center of a circular slice. **d/s **= **d**iameter of sample divided by probe **s**pacing (probe spacing being the distance between any two adjacent probes). For example, a 4mm diameter sample probed with a four point probe with 1mm tip spacing would have a correction factor of 0.6462. A 100mm wafer measured with a four point probe head that has 1mm tip spacing would have a correction factor of 0.9991. A result better than 0.1% can be obtained by measuring in the center of a circle with diameter greater than 100 x s., better than 1% is obtained with 40 x s.

**National Bureau of Standards Technical Note 199 – “Correction Factor Tables for Four-Point Probe Resistivity Measurements on Thin, Circular Semiconductor Samples**“

**nbs.pdf** 6.08 MEG PDF file which includes all 42 pages of the 1964 National Bureau of Standards Technical Note 199, *“Correction Factor Tables for Four-Point Probe Resistivity Measurements on Thin, Circular Semiconductor Samples”*

The individual pages range in size from 60K to 230K.

The individual pages:

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**Four-Point-Probes** is a division of Bridge Technology. To request further information please call Bridge Technology at (480) 988-2256 or send e-mail to Larry Bridge at: sales@bridgetec.com